The second stage examination of INMO, the Regional Mathematical Olympiad (RMO) is a three hour examination with six problems. The problems under each topic involve high level of difficulty and sophistication. The book, Challenge and Thrill of Pre-College Mathematics is very useful for preparation of RMO. West Bengal RMO 2015 Problem 3 Solution has been written for RMO preparation series.


Problem:


Show that there are infinitely many triples (x,y,z) of positive integers, such that x^3+y^4=z^{31} .


Discussion


Suppose we have found one such triplet (x, y, z). Then x^3 + y^4 = z^{31} . Multiply a^{372} to both sides where a is an arbitrary integer.

Clearly we have a^{372}x^3 + a^{372}y^4 = a^{372}z^{31}

\Rightarrow (a^{124}x)^3 + (a^{93}y)^4 = (a^{12}z)^{31}

Hence if (x, y, z) is a triple then (a^{124}x, a^{93}y, a^{12}z ) is another such triple. Since a can be any arbitrary integer, hence we have found infinitely many such triplets provided we have found at least one

To find one such triple, we use the following intuition: set x, y, z as some powers of 2 such that x^3 = y^4 = 2^{r} . Then r must be of the form 12k. Finally, their sum must be x^3 + y^4 = 2^{r} + 2^{r} = 2^{r+1} . This r+1 must be divisible by 31.

Let r = 12s and r+1 = 31m we get 12s +1 = 31m . Since 12 and 31 are coprime there is integer solution to this linear diophantine equation (by Bezoat’s theorem). We can solve this linear diophantine equation by euclidean algorithm.

31 = 12 \times 2 + 7
12 = 7\times 1 + 5
7 = 5\times 1 + 2
5 = 2 \times 2 + 1
\Rightarrow 1 = 5 - 2 \times 2 = 5 - 2 \times (7 - 5 \times 1)
\Rightarrow 1 = 3 \times 5 - 2 \times 7 = 3 \times (12 - 7 \times 1) - 2 \times 7
\Rightarrow 1 = 3 \times 12 - 5 \times 7 = 3 \times 12 - 5 \times (31 - 12 \times 2)
\Rightarrow 1 = 13 \times 12 - 5 \times 31
\Rightarrow 1 = 13 \times 12 - 5 \times 31 + 12 \times 31 - 12 \times 31
\Rightarrow 1 = (13 -31)\times 12 +(12- 5 )\times 31
\Rightarrow 1 = -18 \times 12 + 7\times 31
\Rightarrow 1 + 18 \times 12 = 7\times 31
Hence we use this to form an equation:
2^{18 \times 12} + 2^{18 \times 12} = 2^{216} + 2^{216} = 2^{217}=2^{7\times 31}
(2^{72})^3 + (2^{54})^4 = (2^7)^{31}

Hence we have found one such triple : (2^{72}, 2^{54} ,2^7 ) (from which we have shown earlier that infinitely more can be generated)


Chatuspathi:

  • What is this topic: Number Theory
  • What are some of the associated concept: Linear Diophantine Equation, Bézout’s Theorem, Euclidean Algorithm, Sum of powers of two
  • Where can learn these topics: Cheenta I.S.I. & C.M.I. course, Cheenta Math Olympiad Program, discuss these topics in the ‘Number Theory’ module.
  • Book Suggestions: Elementary Number Theory by David Burton