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June 7, 2019

Biliards and reflection

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Understand the problem

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version="3.22.4" text_font="Raleway||||||||" background_color="#f4f4f4" box_shadow_style="preset2" custom_margin="10px||10px" custom_padding="10px|20px|10px|20px"]We have a rectangle whose sides are mirrors. A ray of light enters from one of vertices of the rectangle and after being reflected several times, exits via the vertex opposite to the initial one. Prove that at some point of time, the ray passed through the centre of rectangle (Intersection of the diagonals.)

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version="3.22.4"][et_pb_column type="4_4" _builder_version="3.22.4"][et_pb_accordion open_toggle_text_color="#0c71c3" _builder_version="3.23.3" toggle_font="||||||||" body_font="Raleway||||||||" text_orientation="center" custom_margin="10px||10px"][et_pb_accordion_item title="Source of the problem" open="on" _builder_version="3.23.3" title_text_shadow_horizontal_length="0em" title_text_shadow_vertical_length="0em" title_text_shadow_blur_strength="0em" closed_title_text_shadow_horizontal_length="0em" closed_title_text_shadow_vertical_length="0em" closed_title_text_shadow_blur_strength="0em"]Iranian Mathematical Olympiad 2019 (second round)[/et_pb_accordion_item][et_pb_accordion_item title="Topic" open="off" _builder_version="3.23.3" title_text_shadow_horizontal_length="0em" title_text_shadow_vertical_length="0em" title_text_shadow_blur_strength="0em" closed_title_text_shadow_horizontal_length="0em" closed_title_text_shadow_vertical_length="0em" closed_title_text_shadow_blur_strength="0em"]Geometry/Combinatorics

[/et_pb_accordion_item][et_pb_accordion_item title="Difficulty Level" open="off" _builder_version="3.23.3" title_text_shadow_horizontal_length="0em" title_text_shadow_vertical_length="0em" title_text_shadow_blur_strength="0em" closed_title_text_shadow_horizontal_length="0em" closed_title_text_shadow_vertical_length="0em" closed_title_text_shadow_blur_strength="0em"]Hard[/et_pb_accordion_item][et_pb_accordion_item title="Comments" open="off" _builder_version="3.23.3" title_text_shadow_horizontal_length="0em" title_text_shadow_vertical_length="0em" title_text_shadow_blur_strength="0em" closed_title_text_shadow_horizontal_length="0em" closed_title_text_shadow_vertical_length="0em" closed_title_text_shadow_blur_strength="0em"]It is interesting to note how Olympiads reflect the current state of mathematical research. This is not unexpected, because olympiad problems usually originate from elementary corollaries of advanced Mathematics. This particular problem has to do with the problem of billiards in the field of Dynamical Systems. The interested reader can learn more here.[/et_pb_accordion_item][/et_pb_accordion][et_pb_text _builder_version="3.22.4" text_font="Raleway|300|||||||" text_text_color="#ffffff" header_font="Raleway|300|||||||" header_text_color="#e2e2e2" background_color="#0c71c3" border_radii="on|5px|5px|5px|5px" box_shadow_style="preset3" custom_margin="48px||48px" custom_padding="20px|20px|20px|20px"]

Start with hints

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Instead of reflecting the ray and keeping the rectangle fixed, reflect the rectangle and keep the ray fixed.   [/et_pb_tab][et_pb_tab title="Hint 2" _builder_version="3.23.3"]

Following hint 1, you will get a grid of rectangles and a straight line representing the path of light. If this straight line passes through one of the reflections of the opposite vertex, then in our original representation it has to pass through the opposite vertex. Similarly, if it passes through one of the reflections of the centre then in the original representation, it has to pass through the centre.[/et_pb_tab][et_pb_tab title="Hint 3" _builder_version="3.23.3"] Show that the reflections of (a,b) are of the form ((2m-1)a,(2n-1)b). Also, the reflections of the centre (a/2,b/2) are of the form ((p+1/2)a,(q+1/2)b.[/et_pb_tab][et_pb_tab title="Hint 4" _builder_version="3.23.3"]Suppose that the line indeed passes through a reflection of the opposite vertex. Then it is of the form x(t)=(2m+1)at, y(t)=(2n+1)bt. Taking t=\frac{1}{2}, we see that it passes through ((m+1/2)a,(n+1/2)b), which is a reflection of the centre.[/et_pb_tab][/et_pb_tabs][et_pb_text _builder_version="3.22.4" text_font="Raleway|300|||||||" text_text_color="#ffffff" header_font="Raleway|300|||||||" header_text_color="#e2e2e2" background_color="#0c71c3" border_radii="on|5px|5px|5px|5px" box_shadow_style="preset3" custom_margin="48px||48px" custom_padding="20px|20px|20px|20px"]

Watch the video (Coming Soon)

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Connected Program at Cheenta

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Math Olympiad is the greatest and most challenging academic contest for school students. Brilliant school students from over 100 countries participate in it every year. Cheenta works with small groups of gifted students through an intense training program. It is a deeply personalized journey toward intellectual prowess and technical sophistication.[/et_pb_blurb][et_pb_button button_url="https://www.cheenta.com/matholympiad/" url_new_window="on" button_text="Learn More" button_alignment="center" _builder_version="3.23.3" custom_button="on" button_bg_color="#0c71c3" button_border_color="#0c71c3" button_border_radius="0px" button_font="Raleway||||||||" button_icon="%%3%%" button_text_shadow_style="preset1" box_shadow_style="preset1" box_shadow_color="#0c71c3" background_layout="dark"][/et_pb_button][et_pb_text _builder_version="3.22.4" text_font="Raleway|300|||||||" text_text_color="#ffffff" header_font="Raleway|300|||||||" header_text_color="#e2e2e2" background_color="#0c71c3" border_radii="on|5px|5px|5px|5px" box_shadow_style="preset3" custom_margin="50px||50px" custom_padding="20px|20px|20px|20px"]

Similar Problems

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