Test of Mathematics at the 10+2 Level

This is a Test of Mathematics Solution Subjective 126 (from ISI Entrance). The book, Test of Mathematics at 10+2 Level is Published by East West Press. This problem book is indispensable for the preparation of I.S.I. B.Stat and B.Math Entrance.


Problem

Sketch, on plain paper, the regions represented, on the plane by the following:

(i) |y| = \sin x

(ii) |x| - |y| \ge 1


Solution

First we need to understand what |y| signifies. It is the absolute value of y, that is it is +y when y is positive and -y when y is negative.

Lets test with x = \frac{\pi}{6} . Clearly then sin x = 1/2. This implies |y| = 1/2 or y = 1/2, -1/2 .

Again let us test with x = \pi + \frac{\pi}{6} . Then \sin (\pi + \frac{\pi}{6}) = - \frac{1}{2} implying |y| = - \frac{1}{2} . But this is impossible as absolute value cannot be negative.

Using these observations we get a clear idea about what is happening.

  • The values of x where sin (x) is positive (that is when \displaystyle {\frac {4k \pi}{2} \le x \le \frac {(4k+2) \pi }{2} }, where k is any integer), we draw the graph of y = sin x and reflect it about x axis (as y = sin x and y = – sin x both satisfies the equation).
  • The values of x where sin (x) is negative (that is when \displaystyle {\frac {(4k+2) \pi}{2} \le x \le \frac {(4k+4) \pi }{2} }, where k is any integer), the given relation is not defined as absolute value of y cannot be negative.

Screen Shot 2015-11-19 at 6.56.50 PM.png

For Part (ii)

Notice that |x| gives distance of a point from y axis and |y| gives distance of a point from x axis.

Let us split the problem into cases:

  • x, y both non negative (first quadrant). Then |x| = x, |y| = y, implying |x| - |y| \ge 1 is same as x - y \ge 1
    Screen Shot 2015-11-19 at 8.27.20 PM
  • x \le 0, y \ge 0 implies |x| = -x. Thus in second quadrant the inequality becomes -x -y \ge 1 or x+y \le -1
    Screen Shot 2015-11-19 at 8.30.30 PM
  • x \le 0, y \le 0 implies |x| = -x, |y| = -y. Thus in third quadrant the inequality becomes -x +y \ge 1 or x-y \le -1
    Screen Shot 2015-11-19 at 8.31.44 PM
  • x \ge 0, y \le 0 implies |x| = x, |y| = -y. Thus in fourth quadrant the inequality becomes x + y \ge 1
    Screen Shot 2015-11-19 at 8.33.15 PM

Hence the final picture is:

Screen Shot 2015-11-19 at 8.34.00 PM

(only the shaded zones, not the lines).


Chatuspathi:

  • What is this topic: Graphing of functions, inequalities
  • What are some of the associated concept: Absolute value functions, inequalities
  • Where can learn these topics: I.S.I. & C.M.I. Entrance Course of Cheenta, discusses these topics in the ‘Calculus’ module.
  • Book Suggestions: Play with Graphs (Arihant Publication)