INTRODUCING 5 - days-a-week problem solving session for Math Olympiad and ISI Entrance. Learn More 

October 24, 2019

Number Theory - Dutch MO 2015, Problem 4

[et_pb_section fb_built="1" _builder_version="3.22.4"][et_pb_row _builder_version="3.25"][et_pb_column type="4_4" _builder_version="3.25" custom_padding="|||" custom_padding__hover="|||"][et_pb_text _builder_version="3.27.4" text_font="Raleway|300|||||||" text_text_color="#ffffff" header_font="Raleway|300|||||||" header_text_color="#e2e2e2" background_color="#0c71c3" custom_padding="20px|20px|20px|20px" border_radii="on|5px|5px|5px|5px" box_shadow_style="preset3"]

Understand the problem

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version="4.0" text_font="Raleway||||||||" background_color="#f4f4f4" custom_margin="10px||10px" custom_padding="10px|20px|10px|20px" hover_enabled="0" box_shadow_style="preset2"]Find all pairs of prime numbers $(p, q)$ for which $7pq^2 + p = q^3 + 43p^3 + 1$ [/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version="3.25"][et_pb_column type="4_4" _builder_version="3.25" custom_padding="|||" custom_padding__hover="|||"][et_pb_accordion open_toggle_text_color="#0c71c3" _builder_version="3.22.4" toggle_font="||||||||" body_font="Raleway||||||||" text_orientation="center" custom_margin="10px||10px" hover_enabled="0"][et_pb_accordion_item title="Source of the problem" open="on" _builder_version="4.0" hover_enabled="0"]Dutch MO 2015 Problem 4 [/et_pb_accordion_item][et_pb_accordion_item title="Topic" _builder_version="4.0" hover_enabled="0" open="off"]Number Theory [/et_pb_accordion_item][et_pb_accordion_item title="Difficulty Level" _builder_version="4.0" hover_enabled="0" open="off"]5/10 [/et_pb_accordion_item][et_pb_accordion_item title="Suggested Book" _builder_version="4.0" hover_enabled="0" open="off"]Challenges and Thrills in Pre College Mathematics [/et_pb_accordion_item][/et_pb_accordion][et_pb_text _builder_version="3.27.4" text_font="Raleway|300|||||||" text_text_color="#ffffff" header_font="Raleway|300|||||||" header_text_color="#e2e2e2" background_color="#0c71c3" custom_margin="48px||48px" custom_padding="20px|20px|20px|20px" border_radii="on|5px|5px|5px|5px" box_shadow_style="preset3"]

Start with hints

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_tabs active_tab_background_color="#0c71c3" inactive_tab_background_color="#000000" _builder_version="4.0" tab_text_color="#ffffff" tab_font="||||||||" background_color="#ffffff" hover_enabled="0"][et_pb_tab title="Hint 0" _builder_version="4.0" hover_enabled="0"]Do you really need a hint? Try it first!

[/et_pb_tab][et_pb_tab title="Hint 1" _builder_version="4.0" hover_enabled="0"]This Diophantine Equation may seem a bit difficult to handle and will force you to try various techniques like making modulo 7, modulo p, modulo q as p and q are given as primes. But, let's go through the basic techniques for handling it. So what is it? Checking the parity of p and q in the given equation. [/et_pb_tab][et_pb_tab title="Hint 2" _builder_version="4.0" hover_enabled="0"]Som check that if both p and q are odd primes, then the LHS will be even but the RHS will be odd, which is a contradiction.  Hence the only way it can happen that one of them must be even i.e. 2. [/et_pb_tab][et_pb_tab title="Hint 3" _builder_version="4.0" hover_enabled="0"]Now, things seem to be under control. We have two cases, p = 2 and q = 2. For p = 2, we get the equation \( q^3 - 14q^2 = -343 \). This implies that q must divide \( 343 = 7^3\). Hence q can be only 7. This gives rise to the solution (2,7). The next hint offers the other case. [/et_pb_tab][et_pb_tab title="Hint 4" _builder_version="4.0" hover_enabled="0"]For  q = 2. we get \(43p^3 - 29p + 9 = 0\). How to solve this? Clearly apply the same idea. Observe that if p = odd the LHS will be odd which can't be 0. Hence, p must be 2, but it doesn't satisfy the equation. The only solution is (2,7). [/et_pb_tab][/et_pb_tabs][et_pb_text _builder_version="3.27.4" text_font="Raleway|300|||||||" text_text_color="#ffffff" header_font="Raleway|300|||||||" header_text_color="#e2e2e2" background_color="#0c71c3" custom_margin="48px||48px" custom_padding="20px|20px|20px|20px" border_radii="on|5px|5px|5px|5px" box_shadow_style="preset3"]

Watch video

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_code _builder_version="3.26.4"]
[/et_pb_code][et_pb_text _builder_version="3.27.4" text_font="Raleway|300|||||||" text_text_color="#ffffff" header_font="Raleway|300|||||||" header_text_color="#e2e2e2" background_color="#0c71c3" min_height="12px" custom_margin="50px||50px" custom_padding="20px|20px|20px|20px" border_radii="on|5px|5px|5px|5px" box_shadow_style="preset3"]

Connected Program at Cheenta

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_blurb title="Math Olympiad Program" url="https://www.cheenta.com/matholympiad/" url_new_window="on" image="https://www.cheenta.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/matholympiad.png" _builder_version="3.23.3" header_font="||||||||" header_text_color="#e02b20" header_font_size="48px" link_option_url="https://www.cheenta.com/matholympiad/" link_option_url_new_window="on"]

Math Olympiad is the greatest and most challenging academic contest for school students. Brilliant school students from over 100 countries participate in it every year. Cheenta works with small groups of gifted students through an intense training program. It is a deeply personalized journey toward intellectual prowess and technical sophistication.[/et_pb_blurb][et_pb_button button_url="https://www.cheenta.com/matholympiad/" url_new_window="on" button_text="Learn More" button_alignment="center" _builder_version="3.23.3" custom_button="on" button_bg_color="#0c71c3" button_border_color="#0c71c3" button_border_radius="0px" button_font="Raleway||||||||" button_icon="%%3%%" background_layout="dark" button_text_shadow_style="preset1" box_shadow_style="preset1" box_shadow_color="#0c71c3"][/et_pb_button][et_pb_text _builder_version="3.27.4" text_font="Raleway|300|||||||" text_text_color="#ffffff" header_font="Raleway|300|||||||" header_text_color="#e2e2e2" background_color="#0c71c3" custom_margin="50px||50px" custom_padding="20px|20px|20px|20px" border_radii="on|5px|5px|5px|5px" box_shadow_style="preset3"]

Similar Problems

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_post_slider include_categories="9" _builder_version="3.22.4"][/et_pb_post_slider][et_pb_divider _builder_version="3.22.4" background_color="#0c71c3"][/et_pb_divider][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section]

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Cheenta. Passion for Mathematics

Advanced Mathematical Science. Taught by olympians, researchers and true masters of the subject.
JOIN TRIAL
support@cheenta.com