Categories

## Greatest Positive Integer | AIME I, 1996 | Question 2

Try this beautiful problem from the American Invitational Mathematics Examination, AIME, 1996 based on Greatest Positive Integer.

## Positive Integer – AIME I, 1996

For each real number x, Let [x] denote the greatest integer that does not exceed x,find number of positive integers n is it true that $n \lt 1000$ and that $[log_{2}n]$ is a positive even integer.

• is 107
• is 340
• is 840
• cannot be determined from the given information

### Key Concepts

Inequality

Greatest integer

Integers

AIME I, 1996, Question 2

Elementary Number Theory by Sierpinsky

## Try with Hints

First hint

here Let $[log_{2}n]$=2k for k is an integer

$\Rightarrow 2k \leq log_{2}n \lt 2k+1$

$\Rightarrow 2^{2k} \leq n \lt 2^{2k+1}$ and $n \lt 1000$

Second Hint

$\Rightarrow 4 \leq n \lt 8$

$16 \leq n \lt 32$

$64 \leq n \lt 128$

$256 \leq n \lt 512$

Final Step

$\Rightarrow 4+16+64+256$=340.

Categories

## Integers | AIME I, 1993 Problem | Question 4

Try this beautiful problem from the American Invitational Mathematics Examination I, AIME I, 1993 based on Integers.

## Integer – AIME I, 1993

Find the number of four topics of integers (a,b,c,d) with 0<a<b<c<d<500 satisfy a+d=b+c and bc-ad=93.

• is 107
• is 870
• is 840
• cannot be determined from the given information

### Key Concepts

Integers

Digits

Algebra

AIME I, 1993, Question 4

Elementary Algebra by Hall and Knight

## Try with Hints

First hint

Let k=a+d=b+c

or, d=k-a, b=k-c,

or, (k-c)c-a(k-a)=k(c-a)-(c-a)(c+a)

=(a-c)(a+c-k)

=(c-a)(d-c)=93

Second Hint

(c-a)(d-c)=(1,93),(3,31),(31,3),(93,1)

solving for c

(a,b,c,d)=(c-93,c-92,c,c+1),(c-31,c-28,c,c+3),(c-1,c+92,c,c+93),(c-3,c+28,c,c+31)

Final Step

taking first two solutions a<b<c<d<500

or,$1 \leq c-93, c+1 \leq 499$

or, $94 \leq c \leq 498$ gives 405 solutions

and $1 \leq c-31, c+3 \leq 499$

or, $32 \leq c \leq 496$ gives 465 solutions

or, 405+465=870 solutions.

Categories

## Trapezoid Problem | AIME I, 1992 | Question 9

Try this beautiful problem from the American Invitational Mathematics Examination I, AIME I, 1992 based on trapezoid.

## Trapezoid – AIME I, 1992

Trapezoid ABCD has sides AB=92, BC=50,CD=19,AD=70 with AB parallel to CD. A circle with centre P on AB is drawn tangent to BC and AD. Given that AP=$\frac{m}{n}$, where m and n are relatively prime positive integers, find m+n.

• is 107
• is 164
• is 840
• cannot be determined from the given information

### Key Concepts

Integers

Trapezoid

Angle Bisectors

AIME I, 1992, Question 9

Coordinate Geometry by Loney

## Try with Hints

First hint

Let AP=y or, PB=92-y

extending AD and BC to meet at Y

and YP bisects angle AYB

Second Hint

Let F be point on CD where it meets

Taking angle bisector theorem,

let YB=z(92-y), YA=zy for some z

YD=zy-70, YC=z(92-y)-50

$\frac{yz-79}{z(92-y)-50}=\frac{YD}{YC}=\frac{FD}{FC}=\frac{AP}{PB}=\frac{y}{42-y}$

Final Step

solving we get 120y=(70)(92)

or, AP=y=$\frac{161}{3}$

or, 161+3=164.

Categories

## Function Problem | AIME I, 1988 | Question 2

Try this beautiful problem from the American Invitational Mathematics Examination I, AIME I, 1988 based on function.

## Function Problem – AIME I, 1988

For any positive integer k, let $f_1(k)$ denote the square of the sum of the digits of k. For $n \geq 2$, let $f_n(k)=f_1(f_{n-1}(k))$, find $f_{1988}(11)$.

• is 107
• is 169
• is 634
• cannot be determined from the given information

### Key Concepts

Functions

Equations

Algebra

AIME I, 1988, Question 2

Functional Equation by Venkatchala

## Try with Hints

First hint

$f_1(11)=4$

or, $f_2(11)=f_1(4)=16$

or, $f_3(11)=f_1(16)=49$

Second Hint

or, $f_4(11)=f_1(49)=169$

or, $f_5(11)=f_1(169)=256$

or, $f_6(11)=f_1(256)=169$

or, $f_7(11)=f_1(169)=256$

Final Step

This goes on between two numbers with this pattern, here 1988 is even,

or, $f_1988(11)=f_4(11)=169$.

Categories

## Problem on Fibonacci sequence | AIME I, 1988 | Question 13

Try this beautiful problem from the American Invitational Mathematics Examination I, AIME I, 1988 based on Fibonacci sequence.

## Fibonacci sequence Problem – AIME I, 1988

Find a if a and b are integers such that $x^{2}-x-1$ is a factor of $ax^{17}+bx^{16}+1$.

• is 107
• is 987
• is 840
• cannot be determined from the given information

### Key Concepts

Integers

Digits

Sets

AIME I, 1988, Question 13

Elementary Number Theory by David Burton

## Try with Hints

First hint

Let F(x)=$ax^{17}+bx^{16}+1$

Let P(x) be polynomial such that

$P(x)(x^{2}-x-1)=F(x)$

constant term of P(x) =(-1)

now $(x^{2}-x-1)(c_1x^{15}+c_2x^{14}+….+c_{15}x-1)$ where $c_{i}$=coefficient

Second Hint

comparing the coefficients of x we get the terms

since F(x) has no x term, then $c_{15}$=1

getting $c_{14}$

$(x^{2}-x-1)(c_1x^{15}+c_2x^{14}+….+c_{15}x-1)$

=terms +$0x^{2}$ +terms

or, $c_{14}=-2$

proceeding in the same way $c_{13}=3$, $c_{12}=-5$, $c_{11}=8$ gives a pattern of Fibonacci sequence

Final Step

or, coefficients of P(x) are Fibonacci sequence with alternating signs

or, a=$c_1=F_{16}$ where $F_{16}$ is 16th Fibonacci number

or, a=987.

Categories

## Reflection Problem | AIME I, 1988 | Question 14

Try this beautiful problem from the American Invitational Mathematics Examination I, AIME I, 1988, Question 14, based on Reflection.

## Reflection Problem – AIME I, 1988

Let C be the graph of xy=1 and denote by C’ the reflection of C in the line y=2x. let the equation of C’ be written in the form $12x^{2}+bxy +cy^{2}+d=0$, find the product bc.

• is 107
• is 84
• is 840
• cannot be determined from the given information

### Key Concepts

Geometry

Equation

Algebra

AIME I, 1988, Question 14

Coordinate Geometry by Loney

## Try with Hints

First hint

Let P(x,y) on C such that P'(x’,y’) on C’ where both points lie on the line perpendicular to y=2x

slope of PP’=$\frac{-1}{2}$, then $\frac{y’-y}{x’-x}$=$\frac{-1}{2}$

or, x’+2y’=x+2y

also midpoint of PP’, $(\frac{x+x’}{2},\frac{y+y’}{2})$ lies on y=2x

Second Hint

or, $\frac{y+y’}{2}=x+x’$

or, 2x’-y’=y-2x

solving these two equations, x=$\frac{-3x’+4y’}{5}$ and $y=\frac{4x’+3y’}{5}$

putting these points into the equation C $\frac{(-3x’+4y’)(4x’+3y’)}{25}$=1

Final Step

which when expanded becomes

$12x’^{2}-7x’y’-12y’^{2}+25=0$

or, bc=(-7)(-12)=84.

Categories

## Problem on Complex plane | AIME I, 1988| Question 11

Try this beautiful problem from the American Invitational Mathematics Examination I, AIME I, 1988 based on Complex Plane.

## Problem on Complex Plane – AIME I, 1988

Let w_1,w_2,….,w_n be complex numbers. A line L in the complex plane is called a mean line for the points w_1,w_2,….w_n if L contains points (complex numbers) z_1,z_2, …..z_n such that $\sum_{k=1}^{n}(z_{k}-w_{k})=0$ for the numbers $w_1=32+170i, w_2=-7+64i, w_3=-9+200i, w_4=1+27i$ and $w_5=-14+43i$, there is a unique mean line with y-intercept 3. Find the slope of this mean line.

• is 107
• is 163
• is 634
• cannot be determined from the given information

### Key Concepts

Integers

Equations

Algebra

AIME I, 1988, Question 11

Elementary Algebra by Hall and Knight

## Try with Hints

First hint

$\sum_{k=1}^{5}w_k=3+504i$

and $\sum_{k-1}^{5}z_k=3+504i$

Second Hint

taking the numbers in the form a+bi

$\sum_{k=1}^{5}a_k=3$ and $\sum_{k=1}^{5}b_k=504$

Final Step

or, y=mx+3 where $b_k=ma_k+3$ adding all 5 equations given for each k

or, 504=3m+15

or, m=163.

Categories

## Problem on Real Numbers | AIME I, 1990| Question 15

Try this beautiful problem from the American Invitational Mathematics Examination I, AIME I, 1990 based on Real Numbers.

## Problem on Real Numbers – AIME I, 1990

Find $ax^{5}+by^{5}$ if real numbers a,b,x,y satisfy the equations

ax+by=3

$ax^{2}+by^{2}=7$

$ax^{3}+by^{3}=16$

$ax^{4}+by^{4}=42$

• is 107
• is 20
• is 634
• cannot be determined from the given information

### Key Concepts

Integers

Equations

Algebra

AIME I, 1990, Question 15

Elementary Algebra by Hall and Knight

## Try with Hints

First hint

Let S=x+y, P=xy

$(ax^{n}+by^{n})(x+y)$

$=(ax^{n+1}+by^{n+1})+(xy)(ax^{n-1}+by^{n-1})$

Second Hint

or,$(ax^{2}+by^{2})(x+y)=(ax^{3}+by^{3})+(xy)(ax+by)$ which is first equation

or,$(ax^{3}+by^{3})(x+y)=(ax^{4}+by^{4})+(xy)(ax^{2}+by^{2})$ which is second equation

or, 7S=16+3P

16S=42+7P

or, S=-14, P=-38

Final Step

or, $(ax^{4}+by^{4})(x+y)=(ax^{5}+by^{5})+(xy)(ax^{3}+by^{3})$

or, $42S=(ax^{5}+by^{5})+P(16)$

or, $42(-14)=(ax^{5}+by^{5})+(-38)(16)$

or, $ax^{5}+by^{5}=20$.

Categories

## Digits and Integers | AIME I, 1990 | Question 13

Try this beautiful problem from the American Invitational Mathematics Examination I, AIME I, 1990 based on Digits and Integers.

## Digits and Integers – AIME I, 1990

Let T={$9^{k}$: k is an integer, $0 \leq k \leq 4000$} given that $9^{4000}$ has 3817 digits and that its first (leftmost) digit is 9, how many elements of T have 9 as their leftmost digit?

• is 107
• is 184
• is 840
• cannot be determined from the given information

### Key Concepts

Integers

Digits

Sets

AIME I, 1990, Question 13

Elementary Number Theory by David Burton

## Try with Hints

First hint

here $9^{4000}$ has 3816 digits more than 9,

Second Hint

or, 4000-3816=184

Final Step

or, 184 numbers have 9 as their leftmost digits.

Categories

## Complex numbers and Sets | AIME I, 1990 | Question 10

Try this beautiful problem from the American Invitational Mathematics Examination I, AIME I, 1990 based on Complex Numbers and Sets.

## Complex Numbers and Sets – AIME I, 1990

The sets A={z:$z^{18}=1$} and B={w:$w^{48}=1$} are both sets of complex roots with unity, the set C={zw: $z \in A and w \in B$} is also a set of complex roots of unity. How many distinct elements are in C?.

• is 107
• is 144
• is 840
• cannot be determined from the given information

### Key Concepts

Integers

Complex Numbers

Sets

AIME I, 1990, Question 10

Complex Numbers from A to Z by Titu Andreescue

## Try with Hints

First hint

18th and 48th roots of 1 found by de Moivre’s Theorem

=$cis(\frac{2k_1\pi}{18})$ and $cis(\frac{2k_2\pi}{48})$

Second Hint

where $k_1$, $K_2$ are integers from 0 to 17 and 0 to 47 and $cis \theta = cos \theta +i sin \theta$

zw= $cis(\frac{k_1\pi}{9}+\frac{k_2\pi}{24})=cis(\frac{8k_1\pi+3k_2\pi}{72})$

Final Step

and since the trigonometric functions are periodic every period ${2\pi}$

or, at (72)(2)=144 distinct elements in C.