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This is a very simple and beautiful sample problem from ISI MStat PSB 2013 Problem 7. It is mainly based on simple hypothesis testing of normal variables where it is just modified with a bernoulli random variable. Try it!

Suppose \(X_1\) and \(X_2\) are two independent and identically distributed random variables with \(N(\theta, 1)\). Further consider a Bernoulli random variable \(V\) with \(P(V=1)=\frac{1}{4}\) which is independent of \(X_1\) and \(X_2\) . Define \(X_3\) as,

\(X_3 = \begin{cases} X_1 & when & V=0 \\ X_2 & when & V=1 \end{cases}\)

For testing \(H_o: \theta= 0\) against \(H_1=\theta=1\) consider the test:

Rejects \(H_o\) if \(\frac{(X_1+X_2+X_3)}{3} >c\).

Find \(c\) such that the test has size \(0.05\).

Normal Distribution

Simple Hypothesis Testing

Bernoulli Trials

These problem is simple enough, the only trick is that to observe that the test rule is based on 3 random variables, \(X_1,X_2 \) and \(X_3\) but \(X_3\) on extension is dependent on the the other bernoulli variable \(V\).

So, here it is given that we reject \(H_o\) at size \(0.05\) if \(\frac{(X_1+X_2+X_3)}{3}> c\) such that,

\(P_{H_o}(\frac{X_1+X_2+X_3}{3}>c)=0.05\)

So, Using law of Total Probability as, \(X_3\) is conditioned on \(V\),

\(P_{H_o}(X_1+X_2+X_3>3c|V=0)P(V=0)+P_{H_o}(X_1+X_2+X_3>3c|V=1)P(V=1)=0.05\)

\(\Rightarrow P_{H_o}(2X_1+X_2>3c)\frac{3}{4}+P_{H_o}(X_1+2X_2>3c)\frac{1}{4}=0.05 \) [ remember, \(X_1\), and \(X_2\) are independent of \(V\)].

Now, under \(H_o\) , \(2X_1+X_2 \sim N(0,5) \)and \( X_1+2X_2 \sim N(0,5) \) ,

So, the rest part is quite obvious and easy to figure it out which I leave it is an exercise itself !!

Lets end this discussion with some exponential,

Suppose, \(X_1,X_2,....,X_n\) are a random sample from \(exponential(\theta)\) and \(Y_1,Y_2,.....,Y_m\) is another random sample from the population of \(exponential(\mu)\). Now you are to test \(H_o: \theta=\mu\) against \(H_1: \theta \neq \mu \) .

Can you show that the test can be based on a statistic \(T\) such that, \(T= \frac{\sum X_i}{\sum X_i +\sum Y_i}\).

What distribution you think, T should follow under null hypothesis ? Think it over !!

What to do to shape your Career in Mathematics after 12th?

From the video below, let's learn from Dr. Ashani Dasgupta (a Ph.D. in Mathematics from the University of Milwaukee-Wisconsin and Founder-Faculty of Cheenta) how you can shape your career in Mathematics and pursue it after 12th in India and Abroad. These are some of the key questions that we are discussing here:

- What are some of the best colleges for Mathematics that you can aim to apply for after high school?
- How can you strategically opt for less known colleges and prepare yourself for the best universities in India or Abroad for your Masters or Ph.D. Programs?
- What are the best universities for MS, MMath, and Ph.D. Programs in India?
- What topics in Mathematics are really needed to crack some great Masters or Ph.D. level entrances?
- How can you pursue a Ph.D. in Mathematics outside India?
- What are the 5 ways Cheenta can help you to pursue Higher Mathematics in India and abroad?

Cheenta has taken an initiative of helping College and High School Passout Students with its "Open Seminars" and "Open for all Math Camps". These events are extremely useful for students who are really passionate for Mathematic and want to pursue their career in it.

Cheenta is a knowledge partner of Aditya Birla Education Academy

Advanced Mathematical Science. Taught by olympians, researchers and true masters of the subject.

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