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An inequality involving unknown polynomials

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Understand the problem

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version="3.26.6" text_font="Raleway||||||||" background_color="#f4f4f4" box_shadow_style="preset2" custom_margin="10px||10px" custom_padding="10px|20px|10px|20px"]Find all the polynomials $P(x)$ of a degree $\leq n$ with real non-negative coefficients such that $P(x) \cdot P(\frac{1}{x}) \leq [P(1)]^2$ , $ \forall x>0$. [/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version="3.25"][et_pb_column type="4_4" _builder_version="3.25" custom_padding="|||" custom_padding__hover="|||"][et_pb_accordion open_toggle_text_color="#0c71c3" _builder_version="3.26.6" toggle_font="||||||||" body_font="Raleway||||||||" text_orientation="center" custom_margin="10px||10px"][et_pb_accordion_item title="Source of the problem" open="on" _builder_version="3.26.6"]Albanian BMO TST 2009 [/et_pb_accordion_item][et_pb_accordion_item title="Topic" _builder_version="3.26.6" open="off"]Algebra [/et_pb_accordion_item][et_pb_accordion_item title="Difficulty Level" _builder_version="3.26.6" open="off"]Easy [/et_pb_accordion_item][et_pb_accordion_item title="Suggested Book" _builder_version="3.26.6" open="off"]An Excursion in Mathematics [/et_pb_accordion_item][/et_pb_accordion][et_pb_text _builder_version="3.22.4" text_font="Raleway|300|||||||" text_text_color="#ffffff" header_font="Raleway|300|||||||" header_text_color="#e2e2e2" background_color="#0c71c3" border_radii="on|5px|5px|5px|5px" box_shadow_style="preset3" custom_margin="48px||48px" custom_padding="20px|20px|20px|20px"]

Start with hints

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_tabs active_tab_background_color="#0c71c3" inactive_tab_background_color="#000000" _builder_version="3.26.6" tab_text_color="#ffffff" tab_font="||||||||" background_color="#ffffff"][et_pb_tab title="Hint 0" _builder_version="3.22.4"]Do you really need a hint? Try it first!

[/et_pb_tab][et_pb_tab title="Hint 1" _builder_version="3.26.6"]This problem is all about non-negative real numbers. The first thing that should come to your mind is "standard inequalities!". [/et_pb_tab][et_pb_tab title="Hint 2" _builder_version="3.26.6"]Write P(x)=\Sigma a_kx^k. Using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, show that P(x)P(1/x)\ge (P(1))^2. [/et_pb_tab][et_pb_tab title="Hint 3" _builder_version="3.26.6"]Note that hint 2 along with the hypothesis in the problem implies that P(x)P(1/x)=(P(1))^2. Hence equality holds in hint 2. [/et_pb_tab][et_pb_tab title="Hint 4" _builder_version="3.26.6"]As equality holds in CS, it means that for all k satisfying a_k\neq 0, \frac{a_kx^k}{a_kx^{-k}=x^{2k} is a constant. This is absurd, hence there can be at most one such k. Hence, only monomials can satisfy the given inequality. [/et_pb_tab][/et_pb_tabs][et_pb_text _builder_version="3.26.4" text_font="Raleway|300|||||||" text_text_color="#ffffff" header_font="Raleway|300|||||||" header_text_color="#e2e2e2" background_color="#0c71c3" border_radii="on|5px|5px|5px|5px" box_shadow_style="preset3" custom_margin="48px||48px" custom_padding="20px|20px|20px|20px"]

Watch video

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Connected Program at Cheenta

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Math Olympiad is the greatest and most challenging academic contest for school students. Brilliant school students from over 100 countries participate in it every year. Cheenta works with small groups of gifted students through an intense training program. It is a deeply personalized journey toward intellectual prowess and technical sophistication.[/et_pb_blurb][et_pb_button button_url="https://www.cheenta.com/matholympiad/" url_new_window="on" button_text="Learn More" button_alignment="center" _builder_version="3.23.3" custom_button="on" button_bg_color="#0c71c3" button_border_color="#0c71c3" button_border_radius="0px" button_font="Raleway||||||||" button_icon="%%3%%" button_text_shadow_style="preset1" box_shadow_style="preset1" box_shadow_color="#0c71c3" background_layout="dark"][/et_pb_button][et_pb_text _builder_version="3.22.4" text_font="Raleway|300|||||||" text_text_color="#ffffff" header_font="Raleway|300|||||||" header_text_color="#e2e2e2" background_color="#0c71c3" border_radii="on|5px|5px|5px|5px" box_shadow_style="preset3" custom_margin="50px||50px" custom_padding="20px|20px|20px|20px"]

Similar Problems

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