How 9 Cheenta students ranked in top 100 in ISI and CMI Entrances?

# Understand the problem

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version="3.27" text_font="Raleway||||||||" background_color="#f4f4f4" box_shadow_style="preset2" custom_margin="10px||10px" custom_padding="10px|20px|10px|20px" hover_enabled="0" _i="1" _address="0.0.0.1"]Find all functions $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ such that
$$f(x + y) + y \le f(f(f(x)))$$
holds for all $x, y \in \mathbb{R}$. [/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version="3.25" _i="1" _address="0.1"][et_pb_column type="4_4" _builder_version="3.25" custom_padding="|||" custom_padding__hover="|||" _i="0" _address="0.1.0"][et_pb_accordion open_toggle_text_color="#0c71c3" _builder_version="3.27" toggle_font="||||||||" body_font="Raleway||||||||" text_orientation="center" custom_margin="10px||10px" hover_enabled="0" _i="0" _address="0.1.0.0"][et_pb_accordion_item title="Source of the problem" open="on" _builder_version="3.27" _i="0" _address="0.1.0.0.0" hover_enabled="0"]Benelux MO 2013 [/et_pb_accordion_item][et_pb_accordion_item title="Topic" _builder_version="3.27" _i="1" _address="0.1.0.0.1" open="off" hover_enabled="0"]Functional Equations [/et_pb_accordion_item][et_pb_accordion_item title="Difficulty Level" _builder_version="3.27" _i="2" _address="0.1.0.0.2" open="off" hover_enabled="0"]Easy [/et_pb_accordion_item][et_pb_accordion_item title="Suggested Book" _builder_version="3.27" _i="3" _address="0.1.0.0.3" open="off" hover_enabled="0"]Functional Equations by BJ Venkatachala [/et_pb_accordion_item][/et_pb_accordion][et_pb_text _builder_version="3.22.4" text_font="Raleway|300|||||||" text_text_color="#ffffff" header_font="Raleway|300|||||||" header_text_color="#e2e2e2" background_color="#0c71c3" border_radii="on|5px|5px|5px|5px" box_shadow_style="preset3" custom_margin="48px||48px" custom_padding="20px|20px|20px|20px" _i="1" _address="0.1.0.1"]

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_tabs active_tab_background_color="#0c71c3" inactive_tab_background_color="#000000" _builder_version="3.27" tab_text_color="#ffffff" tab_font="||||||||" background_color="#ffffff" hover_enabled="0" _i="2" _address="0.1.0.2"][et_pb_tab title="Hint 0" _builder_version="3.22.4" _i="0" _address="0.1.0.2.0"]Do you really need a hint? Try it first!

[/et_pb_tab][et_pb_tab title="Hint 1" _builder_version="3.27" _i="1" _address="0.1.0.2.1" hover_enabled="0"]Note that the RHS does not contain $y$. Thus it should be possible to play with different values of $y$ to get rid of the inconvenient $f\circ f\circ f$. [/et_pb_tab][et_pb_tab title="Hint 2" _builder_version="3.27" _i="2" _address="0.1.0.2.2" hover_enabled="0"]Taking $y=f(f(f(x)))-f(x)$, we get $f(f(f(x)))\le f(x)$. Now show that $f(x)\le f(f(f(x)))$. Thus $f(f(f(x)))=f(x)$. [/et_pb_tab][et_pb_tab title="Hint 3" _builder_version="3.27" _i="3" _address="0.1.0.2.3" hover_enabled="0"]Taking $x=0$, we get $f(y)+y\le f(0)$. Now try to show that $f(y)+y\ge f(0)$. [/et_pb_tab][et_pb_tab title="Hint 4" _builder_version="3.27" _i="4" _address="0.1.0.2.4" hover_enabled="0"]Taking $y=-x$ we get the desired inequality from hint 3. Thus $f(y)+y=f(0)\implies f(y)=f(0)-y$ for all $y$. [/et_pb_tab][/et_pb_tabs][et_pb_text _builder_version="3.26.4" text_font="Raleway|300|||||||" text_text_color="#ffffff" header_font="Raleway|300|||||||" header_text_color="#e2e2e2" background_color="#0c71c3" border_radii="on|5px|5px|5px|5px" box_shadow_style="preset3" custom_margin="48px||48px" custom_padding="20px|20px|20px|20px" _i="3" _address="0.1.0.3"]